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WTF Solidity 42. Payment Splitting

I have been relearning solidity recently to solidify some of the details and to create a "WTF Solidity Tutorial" for beginners (advanced programmers can seek other tutorials). New lectures will be updated every week, ranging from 1 to 3.

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In this lecture, we'll introduce the payment splitting contract, which allows the transfer of ETH to a group of accounts according to their respective weights for payment splitting purposes. The code section is a simplification of the PaymentSplitter contract provided by the OpenZeppelin library, which can be found on Github.

Payment Split

Payment split is the act of dividing money according to a certain ratio. In real life, it is common to encounter situations where the spoils are not divided equally. However, in the world of blockchain, Code is Law, we can write the proportion that each person should get in the smart contract in advance, and let the smart contract handle the split of income.

Payment Split

Payment Split Contract

The Payment Split contract (PaymentSplit) has the following features:

  1. When creating the contract, the beneficiaries payees and their share shares are predetermined.
  2. The shares can be equal or in any other proportions.
  3. From all the ETH that the contract receives, each beneficiary is able to withdraw the amount proportional to their allocated share.
  4. The Payment Split contract follows the Pull Payment pattern, where payments are not automatically transferred to the account, but are kept in the contract. Beneficiaries trigger the actual transfer by calling the release() function.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.4;

* PaymentSplit
* @dev This contract will distribute the received ETH to several accounts according to the pre-determined share.Received ETH will be stored in PaymentSplit, and each beneficiary needs to call the release() function to claim it.
contract PaymentSplit {


There are a total of 3 events in the Splitter Contract:

  • PayeeAdded: Event for adding a payee.
  • PaymentReleased: Event for payee withdrawing funds.
  • PaymentReceived: Event for Splitter Contract receiving funds.
    // event
event PayeeAdded(address account, uint256 shares); // Event for adding a payee
event PaymentReleased(address to, uint256 amount); // Event for releasing payment to a payee
event PaymentReceived(address from, uint256 amount); // Event for receiving payment to the contract

State Variables

There are 5 state variables in the revenue splitting contract, used to record beneficiary addresses, shares, and paid out ETH:

  • totalShares: Total shares, which is the sum of shares.
  • totalReleased: The amount of ETH paid out from the revenue splitting contract to beneficiaries, which is the sum of released.
  • payees: An address array that records the addresses of beneficiaries.
  • shares: An address to uint256 mapping that records the shares of each beneficiary.
  • released: An address to uint256 mapping that records the amount paid to each beneficiary by the revenue splitting contract.
    uint256 public totalShares; // Total shares of the contract
uint256 public totalReleased; // Total amount of payments released from the contract

mapping(address => uint256) public shares; // Mapping to store the shares of each payee
mapping(address => uint256) public released; // Mapping to store the amount of payments released to each payee
address[] public payees; // Array of payees


There are 6 functions in the revenue sharing contract:

  • Constructor: initializes the beneficiary array _payees and the revenue sharing array _shares, where the length of both arrays must not be 0 and their lengths must be equal. Elements of the _shares array must be greater than 0, and the addresses in the _payees array can't be the zero address and can't have a duplicate address.
  • receive(): callback function, releases the PaymentReceived event when the revenue sharing contract receives ETH.
  • release(): revenue sharing function, distributes the corresponding ETH to the valid beneficiary address _account. Anyone can trigger this function, but the ETH will be transferred to the beneficiary address _account. Calls the releasable() function.
  • releasable(): calculates the amount of ETH that a beneficiary address should receive. Calls the pendingPayment() function.
  • pendingPayment(): calculates the amount of ETH that the beneficiary should receive based on their address _account, the revenue sharing contract's total income _totalReceived, and the money they have already received _alreadyReleased.
  • _addPayee(): function to add a new beneficiary and their sharing percentage. It is called during the initialization of the contract and cannot be modified afterwards.

* @dev Constructor to initialize the payees array (_payees) and their shares (_shares).
* The length of both arrays cannot be 0 and must be equal.
Each element in the _shares array must be greater than 0,
and each address in _payees must not be a zero address and must be unique.
constructor(address[] memory _payees, uint256[] memory _shares) payable {
// Check that the length of _payees and _shares arrays are equal and not empty
_payees.length == _shares.length,
"PaymentSplitter: payees and shares length mismatch"
require(_payees.length > 0, "PaymentSplitter: no payees");
// Call the _addPayee function to update the payees addresses (payees), their shares (shares), and the total shares (totalShares)
for (uint256 i = 0; i < _payees.length; i++) {
_addPayee(_payees[i], _shares[i]);

* @dev Callback function, receive ETH emit PaymentReceived event
receive() external payable virtual {
emit PaymentReceived(msg.sender, msg.value);

* @dev Splits funds to the designated payee address "_account". Anyone can trigger this function, but the funds will be transferred to the "_account" address.
* Calls the "releasable()" function.
function release(address payable _account) public virtual {
// The "_account" address must be a valid payee.
require(shares[_account] > 0, "PaymentSplitter: account has no shares");
// Calculate the payment due to the "_account" address.
uint256 payment = releasable(_account);
// The payment due cannot be zero.
require(payment != 0, "PaymentSplitter: account is not due payment");
// Update the "totalReleased" and "released" amounts for each payee.
totalReleased += payment;
released[_account] += payment;
// transfer
emit PaymentReleased(_account, payment);

* @dev Calculate the eth that an account can receive.
* The pendingPayment() function is called.
function releasable(address _account) public view returns (uint256) {
// Calculate the total income of the profit-sharing contract
uint256 totalReceived = address(this).balance + totalReleased;
// Call _pendingPayment to calculate the amount of ETH that account is entitled to
return pendingPayment(_account, totalReceived, released[_account]);

* @dev According to the payee address `_account`, the total income of the distribution contract `_totalReceived` and the money received by the address `_alreadyReleased`, calculate the `ETH` that the payee should now distribute.
function pendingPayment(
address _account,
uint256 _totalReceived,
uint256 _alreadyReleased
) public view returns (uint256) {
// ETH due to account = Total ETH due - ETH received
(_totalReceived * shares[_account]) /
totalShares -

* @dev Add payee_account and corresponding share_accountShares. It can only be called in the constructor and cannot be modified.
function _addPayee(address _account, uint256 _accountShares) private {
// Check that _account is not 0 address
_account != address(0),
"PaymentSplitter: account is the zero address"
// Check that _accountShares is not 0
require(_accountShares > 0, "PaymentSplitter: shares are 0");
// Check that _account is not duplicated
shares[_account] == 0,
"PaymentSplitter: account already has shares"
// Update payees, shares and totalShares
shares[_account] = _accountShares;
totalShares += _accountShares;
// emit add payee event
emit PayeeAdded(_account, _accountShares);

Remix Demo

1. Deploy the PaymentSplit contract and transfer 1 ETH

In the constructor, enter two beneficiary addresses with shares of 1 and 3.

Deploying the contract

2. View beneficiary addresses, shares, and ETH to be distributed

Viewing the first beneficiary

Viewing the second beneficiary

3. Call release function to claim ETH

Calling the release function

4. View overall expenses, beneficiary balances, and changes in ETH to be distributed



In this lecture, we introduced the revenue sharing contract. In the world of blockchain, Code is Law, we can write the proportion that each person should receive in the smart contract beforehand. After receiving revenue, the smart contract will handle revenue sharing to avoid the issue of "unequal distribution of shares" afterwards.